They are the antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin. Antidiuretic hormone reabsorbs water from the kidney. Oxytocin contracts the uterus during the childbirth and releases breast milk. The other type of hormones may contain inhibitory or stimulating actions on the secondary endocrine organs of the body. These hormones are sent to the anterior pituitary gland for the secretion. The pituitary gland is the major endocrine gland, which is attached to the base of the brain and controls the production and release of hormones from other endocrine glands.
The two lobes of the pituitary gland are called the anterior pituitary adenohypophysis and the posterior pituitary neurohypophysis. The anterior pituitary comprises glandular cells. The posterior pituitary gland comprises nerve cells. The structure of the pituitary gland is shown in figure 2. Posterior pituitary secretes the hormones produced in the hypothalamus.
The secretions of the other endocrine glands are regulated by the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Therefore, the pituitary gland is called the master gland of the body.
It regulates the secretion of hormones from the adrenal gland, thyroid gland , hypothalamus, thymus , pineal gland, pancreas, and gonads. Through these hormones, growth, development, metabolism , blood pressure, sexual maturation, and reproduction are controlled. Hypothalamus is located below the thalamus whereas pituitary gland is located below the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus by a stalk.
Hypothalamus is connected to the both lobes of the pituitary gland. It connects to the anterior pituitary gland by means of a portal blood system. Therefore, the communication between hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland occurs via chemical signals stimulating and inhibiting hormones. Those chemical signals are produced by the neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus. They are released to a capillary network called primary plexus in order to be transported through the hypophyseal portal veins to a second capillary network called secondary plexus.
The primary plexus, as well as the hypophyseal portal veins, belong to the infundibulum. The secondary plexus belongs to the anterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary complex is shown in figure 3.
Figure 3: Anterior Pituitary Complex. Some neurosecretory cells expand a short distance from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary through the infundibulum. The hormones produced by those neurosecretory cells are stored in vesicles and transported through the axons. The storage of those hormones occurs at the axon terminals at the posterior pituitary. When the neurosecretory cells are stimulated, the hormones in the vesicles are released to the capillary network in the posterior pituitary.
It controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. The anterior lobe of your pituitary gland is made up of several different types of cells that produce and release different types of hormones, including:. The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland also secretes hormones. Several conditions can affect your pituitary gland. Most are caused by a tumor in or around the pituitary gland.
This can impact the release of hormones. Your pituitary gland is involved in a range of things, so any condition involving it can produce a diverse set of symptoms. Most of the conditions that cause these symptoms are easy to treat and manage once you determine the underlying cause. Follow these tips to help protect your pituitary gland. For example, malnourished children may not produce enough growth hormone to meet growth goals for their age group. Chronic stress can lead to an increase in cortisol release.
Too much cortisol can sometimes lead to:. Try setting aside some time to get at least 30 minutes per day of exercise or work on a relaxing hobby. Learn more about lowering your cortisol levels. The suprarenal gland adrenal gland is located at the top of each kidney; therefore each person has two suprarenal glands.
The suprarenal glands are…. It is located on the back portion of the third cerebral ventricle of…. Pituitary gland anatomy and function. The pituitary gland can be divided into two different parts: the anterior and posterior lobes. Anterior lobe The anterior lobe of your pituitary gland is made up of several different types of cells that produce and release different types of hormones, including: Growth hormone.
Growth hormone regulates growth and physical development. It can stimulate growth in almost all of your tissues. Its primary targets are bones and muscles. Thyroid-stimulating hormone. This hormone activates your thyroid to release thyroid hormones. Your thyroid gland and the hormones it produces are crucial for metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic hormone. This hormone stimulates your adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other hormones.
Follicle-stimulating hormone. Follicle-stimulating hormone is involved with estrogen secretion and the growth of egg cells in women. Luteinizing hormone. Luteinizing hormone is involved in the production of estrogen in women and testosterone in men.
Prolactin helps women who are breastfeeding produce milk. Enkephalins are closely related to endorphins and have similar pain-relieving effects. Beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. This hormone helps to stimulate increased pigmentation of your skin in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
Posterior lobe The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland also secretes hormones. Hormones stored in the posterior lobe include: Vasopressin. This is also called antidiuretic hormone.
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